The losses and damages, recognized by the Paris agreement of 2015, refer both to the consequences of sudden climatic events, such as floods or cyclones, and to the slow effects of global warming, such as the rise in sea level. seas. They cover deaths, economic losses, forced migrations or the disappearance of cultural property. These impacts cannot be avoided either by actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or by adaptation to climate change.

In Pakistan, where more than 1700 people have died and the bill is valued at $30 billion, “it is now too late to make homes or crops more resilient. The subject now is to help people rebuild their lives,” said Climate Action Network strategic manager Harjeet Singh.

If the damage linked to global warming affects all territories, it affects developing countries more strongly, which lack the means to deal with it and minimize its effects. According to a recent Oxfam report , 189 million people have been affected each year on average by extreme events in developing countries since 1991. An additional burden for countries already heavily burdened by debt. However, it is these states that are the least responsible for climate change, since they contribute less to current emissions and especially to past ones.

Conversely, developed countries have built up their wealth thanks to fossil fuels – coal, oil, gas – which are the main causes of global warming.

“Loss and damage stems from the failure of the North to reduce its emissions and to provide the promised financial assistance to the countries of the South to adapt,” adds SEI Oxford Research Associate Inès Bakhtaoui.