Drawing on recent results and lessons from BEV studies at local, national and regional scales, the paper presents two alternative scenarios of BEV uptake until 2030 – one incremental growth scenario and one breakthrough scenario. It then draws on the multilevel perspective (MLP) on socio-technical systems as an approach to identify the governance implications of the breakthrough scenario.

Based on a characterisation of barriers and drivers at landscape, regime and niche levels, it identifies governance interventions to enable a BEV breakthrough. The results point towards a multidimensional governance approach that includes conventional policy instruments such as durable incentive policies, with a predictable mechanism for adjustment and phase-out, and mechanisms for mobilising investment finance for fast and super-fast charging and home charging along public roads.

In addition, more innovation-systems oriented governance is required, such as familiarisation and experience building to ease cognitive barriers and build knowledge for both consumers and businesses, and supporting structural and technological change within automotive industries.


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