Using data from rural Vietnam, we find that most household enterprises use non-metered water and have very small profit margins. Thus, the evidence suggests that these enterprises may be better supported by a household-level water supply infrastructure, such as well pumps and rainwater catchment tanks, rather than by piped systems in rural areas.

We also found an unanticipated link between operating small-scale food production businesses and raising livestock: for many households, waste products from food-based micro enterprises were used for rearing pigs, and this enabled business owners to expand their pork production, a significant source of income and prosperity in rural Vietnam.

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