The main outputs are a searchable database comprising 178 publications showing which cities have been discussed, what CE strategy they are focusing on, and the sectors under review. The results show that most research has focused on European countries. Those efforts mainly concentrate on waste and wastewater management, and recycling and recovery strategies are considered the “lower-level” strategies in the CE taxonomy.

The mapping highlights the potential for further research in other cities and regions, looking across sectors and analyzing strategies that tackle the “higher-level” CE strategies. Higher-level strategies include reducing, repurposing, remanufacturing and reusing opportunities to achieve the potential attributed to a CE model by governments across the world.