The authors conclude that there are various ways in which the ambition to increase the production of rice can also reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the analysis suggests that an SD-PAM mechanism may be instrumental in supporting this type of co-benefits. This implies that the pursuit of development policies as a precursor for climate mitigation is valid also for the agricultural sector and, similarly, least developed countries (LDCs) may have a role to play.

Three traits of the LDC setting will influence the design of a future SD-PAM mechanism. One is the way contextual factors influence individual policy programmes. Another is the need for capacity building in its broader sense, which then emerges as another leverage mechanism in addition to funding, credits and technology transfer.

Finally, it requires the recognition that GHG mitigation in LDCs is not about reducing emissions in an absolute sense but, rather, a question of changing development paths and thereby avoiding future GHG emissions.

Note: This is part of a special issue on achieving sustainable-development and climate goals together.

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