The levels of nutrients (NO3−–N, NH4+–N, ON, DIP and OP) in aerosols and rainwater were measured and their respective deposition fluxes were estimated in the Marina catchment area, Singapore, from April 2007 to March 2008.
Wet deposition made a larger contribution to total fluxes than dry deposition for N species, especially NO3− and NH4+, but P species showed the opposite trend. Both TN and TP showed different seasonal variations with peak wet deposition fluxes in Dec 2007 and Jan 2008 as compared to dry deposition fluxes, which peaked during the inter-monsoon (IM) period.
Other than the local emissions, air mass backward trajectory analysis indicated that the atmospheric nutrient concentration may be affected by transboundary transport of nutrients from regional sources during different monsoon seasons. Statistical correlation analysis showed that the deposition fluxes were associated with meteorological factors.
In addition, the N:P ratio in annual total (dry particulate + wet) atmospheric deposition flux in this study was 10.5, implying that the aquatic ecosystems in Singapore, fed principally by atmospheric nutrients, may tend toward N-limitation.
Read the article (external link to journal)