To address the gap, this study assesses the effectiveness of such interventions. It examines various tools used globally, such as monetary incentives, measures that inform the population, feedback instruments and playful motivational actions. The researchers extracted 360 individual effect sizes from 122 studies representing trials in 25 countries.

The findings confirm that both monetary and non-monetary interventions reduce the energy consumption of households, but monetary incentives tend to show a more pronounced effect. Therefore, deploying the right combinations of interventions increases the overall effectiveness. These results could help inform policymaker efforts to reduce the risks involved in decarbonizing energy supplies and find socially acceptable ways to meet the Paris climate goals.