This strategy avoids 0.7 to 4.7 million annual premature deaths from outdoor air pollution and increases annual crop yields by 30 to 135 million metric tons due to ozone reductions in 2030 and beyond. Benefits of methane emissions reductions are valued at USD700 to USD5000 per metric ton, which is well above typical marginal abatement costs (less than USD250). The selected controls target different sources and influence climate on shorter time scales than those of carbon dioxide reduction measures. Implementing both substantially reduces the risks of crossing the 2°C threshold.

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