Mr Elijah Bisung, lead researcher of the REACH project, stated that although women were responsible for collecting and managing water, they are not usually involved in the decision making about investing in water access or sanitation and hygiene infrastructure.

The case study from Ghana confirmed that women had less influence in decision making processes around household expenditure for water and also made less inputs in decisions about water management and community WASH activities. There were also less women in leadership in WASH planning and implementation at the community level.

Dr Sarah Dickin, Research Fellow at SEI, stated that prior to the development of the Empowerment in WASH Index, there was no tool to measure who was being left behind in terms of access to WASH services.