This chapter presents physical and social challenges that cities face, and adaptation planning case studies prepared for the Adapting to Climate Change in Cities Session at the International Climate Adaptation Futures Conference. The goal was to explore risk assessment, differential approaches to adaptation planning, and mitigation and adaptation interactions in cities. Challenges and opportunities across a spectrum of urban developmental conditions were explored. These ranged from the regional studies of the Dutch province of Groningen, to nationally important cities to small municipalities in Australia.

Findings from the research presented are discussed here, organised along the two key themes of urban risk (Tunis, Toronto, and Australian coastal cities), and adaptation planning (five developing country cities, Dutch Eemsdelta, and Australian local governments). In conclusion, emerging issues from these city case studies and interactive roles of mitigation and adaptation are articulated.

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