Renewable energy is expected to gain a larger share in the Indonesian energy mix by 2025. Biogas has the potential to not only contribute to the country’s renewable energy targets by mid-century, but also to provide a series of co-benefits to improve the well-being of vulnerable rural communities. The challenge is to find pathways for biogas to overcome well-established technologies and practices in the current, heavily fossil fuel-based energy system.

Against this backdrop, this research paper focuses on household-level biogas development in rural Bali, Indonesia. Its analysis of four domestic biogas programmes uses an integrated approach that combines a multi-level perspective framework, a system-mapping exercise, an interactive workshop, and a series of semi-structured interviews to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives and experiences.

The analysis focuses on enabling and hindering factors affecting biogas expansion. The article identifies opportunities for improving the design and implementation of related policies, financial structures, and technological measures. The findings are relevant for Indonesia and for other developing countries that are increasingly investing in transitioning to low-carbon energy futures.