The study uses qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews to analyse the processes and outcomes of the institutional dynamics of Ghyang Khola farmer-managed irrigation system (GFMIS) of Dolakha district, one of the conflict-affected districts of the country.

The findings suggest that irrigation institutions have become more inclusive in terms of caste in the post-conflict period due to changes in wider social power relations. This has led to more secure access to irrigation water for women and men of all castes. Changes in the processes of making rules, members, and committees, in particular, have increased the participation in the decision-making forums of men from the formerly excluded middle and lower-caste groups.

In contrast, inclusion of women in such forums remains guided by the provisions mandating their participation in the irrigation policy. However, women from middle and lower castes are still not considered for positions in the executive committee. The study concludes that gender hierarchies remain unaddressed both during the conflict and after it, leading to a limited inclusion of women in decision making at community level in the irrigation system.

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