The Amazon basin is one of the most biologically diverse places on earth. However, agricultural expansion and infrastructure development have led to widespread deforestation that threatens the survival of many taxa. Conservation strategies to contest these threats include protected areas and environmental legislation.

The basic biology of many of the threatened taxa is largely unknown, which poses an immense challenge when devising effective strategies to safeguard them in the long-term. This is particularly true for primates. Monkeys from the genus Mico are poorly studied, with half of the currently known species being described after 1976, and their distribution and threats remain poorly understood.

Using the model Maxent, we re-evaluated the distribution range for Rondon’s marmoset, one of the most threatened species in this genus. Our results estimated a distribution that is 15 500 km2 smaller than previously described for this species (68 649 km2). Furthermore, much of its modeled distribution (71%) lies outside protected areas. Agriculture expansion and infrastructure development have converted/destroyed 20 532 km2 of forest within its range (38%) mainly in areas without protection. Another 10 316 km2 of forest is projected to be cleared by 2040 under current deforestation patterns.

The expected loss of more than half of the range of Rondon’s marmoset in the coming 15 years raises awareness about the threat category of this species. In the absence of new protected areas, it remains to be seen whether Rondon’s marmoset can be effectively conserved in the remaining fragments of forest in farmlands.

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