It finds that non-state actors could help meet key needs as Parties develop modalities and procedures for the three main review processes of the Paris Agreement – the enhanced transparency framework, the global stocktake, and the implementation and compliance mechanism.

Non-state actors a) offer independent and complementary insights and expertise into the progress made by Parties in implementing and enhancing the ambition of the Paris Agreement, b) help ensure that the outcomes of review processes are taken up within countries, and c) if necessary, hold Parties to account.

The Parties can draw on previous experiences under the climate and other international regimes to identify ways to involve non-state actors in the review of Parties’ implementation and ambition.

Along with the formal engagement of non-state actors in review processes under the Paris Agreement, there is great value in such actors continuing to play a major role in informal processes, as was highlighted in the run-up to the Paris Agreement.

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