The authors conducted a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature (N = 1,223) and a qualitative meta-synthesis of included articles, with an explicit focus on learning outcomes and NRM changes (N = 53). Besides social learning, they found several learning concepts used, including policy and transformative learning, and multiple links between learning and NRM reported, and observe that the development of skills, together with a system approach involving multi-level capacities, is decisive for implications of learning for NRM.

Future reviews could systematically compare how primary research applies different learning concepts and discusses links between learning and NRM changes.