Migration has manifold, under-appreciated impacts on those who remain in the village, whose futures may be curtailed and aspirations thwarted. Non-migrants are not just ‘left behind’ in the passive sense, they may experience migration as actively constraining and limiting. There are also hidden effects of migration on farming that run counter to agrarian transition pathways promoted by many governments and multilateral agencies. In this paper, the authors conclude by identifying three gaps in migration research that sit behind the discussion of the affects and effects of migration: the gap between production/work and reproduction/care; between migrants/the mobile and non-migrants/the immobile; and between migrant and non-migrant spaces.