The update focuses on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries.

In addition, two core boundaries — climate change and biosphere integrity — have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth System into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.

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