Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya has high development ambitions, aiming to become a middle-income country by 2030. These development ambitions depend on the rapid expansion of the energy sector as set out by Kenya’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC).

In the power sector, geothermal seems poised to play an important catalysing role in this low-carbon transition pathway. Having moved from niche technology to mainstream, geothermal power development now sits at an important threshold. After years of public-led investment, Kenya is seeking to transition to more private-sector participation.

At the same time, Kenya is seeking to modernize its cooking sector, which remains dominated by traditional fuels. Urbanization will have significant implications on resources if charcoal remains the main cooking fuel. Through a mix of regulations, promotion of improved kiln and cookstove technologies, and supporting alternative fuels, Kenya seeks a dual approach of increasing the sustainability of the charcoal sector.