Our climate is changing as we speak. There are uncertainties on some of the details. How the continued climate change will unfold depends crucially on decisions on mitigation by means of curbing greenhouse gas emissions and better stewardship in land use.

Nevertheless, climate change adaptation is no longer something that we can put on hold. It is not an alternative to mitigation, but rather complementary action, something that is necessary to account for those impacts of climate change that cannot be avoided. For various actors in society, in more or less all sectors, the science base and the societal framing of climate change adaptation are both important to consider.

This report is part of the Mistra-SWECIA Annual Report 2011.

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Swedish Foundation for Environmental Research (Mistra) through the Swedish Research Programme on Climate, Impacts and Adaptation (Mistra-SWECIA) Programme.