The government of Bangladesh keeps using the policy instrument of technology mandate to achieve technology substitution in the brick industry. The target of achieving 100% technology substitution by 2013 is yet to be achieved. Using historical data this paper models diffusion trajectory of the substitute technologies and found that 100% substitution is unlikely by 2035 although the action is prioritized in the updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

A 2020 SEI study identified that the most effective measure in the first NDC is 100% conversion of traditional kilns to energy efficient kilns, which can substantially reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1177 kilotonnes, Black Carbon (BC) by 11 kilotonnes and PM2.5 load by 13 kilotonnes relative to the baseline in 2030.

Several development agencies have implemented projects aimed at cleaner technology diffusion in the sector over the last twenty years. Using established definitions of functions from innovation system literature, actions of all development partners in the sector were mapped against the functions. Donor projects were found to be more involved under Guidance of Search and Creation of Legitimacy functions.

The implications of this research can inform design of future donor supported projects piloting climate technologies with insights from diffusion theories and innovation system.