Climate change will have widespread consequences for populations in Africa, who depend heavily on livestock productions and grassland for their livelihoods. Determining NPP fluctuation can help to inform the improvement of livestock productivity and adaptation of vegetation cover under the future climate.

Despite the essential role of livestock in food security, research on its relationship with climate change in developing countries such as Tanzania is often overlooked. Furthermore, most of the general research on climate change impacts on ecosystems is limited.

To start filling these research gaps, this study assesses NPP fluctuation in Tanzania and subsequently the amount of livestock that will be affected by climate change by 2050. The study finds that the number of grazing livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats will increase in the Tanzanian grasslands in the climate scenarios ran as part of the research. Measures such as improving grassland productivity and grassland conservation under environmental pressures would help sustainable grassland management.