In conducting this study, we set out to answer the following questions:
  • How widespread is the occurrence of ozone injury and ozone-induced biomass reduction in Europe and which species of crops, (semi-)natural vegetation and shrubs are affected?
  • Is there any evidence of temporal or spatial trends in ozone effects as a result of changing ozone profiles?
  • How well do AOT40-based and flux-based maps predict the areas where ozone injury and/or biomass reductions have been detected in ambient air?