Climate change is often described as a “threat multiplier” that intensifies human insecurity and can thus lead to conflicts as well as migration. The interconnections between climate change, conflict and migration are complex and dynamic, however, with no simple line of causality.

Climate and other environmental factors cannot be isolated from the many social, economic and political factors that, together, can spur conflicts and/or lead people to migrate. Climate change clearly does compound pre-existing vulnerabilities, however, and migrants and people in conflict-affected areas are often among the most vulnerable to climate impacts.

These complexities are very evident in Asia, where conflict situations are widespread, and where social and economic inequalities, persecution, and human rights violations coincide with a high exposure to climate impacts and disaster risks. Indeed, Asia is the most disaster-prone region in the world, and it has experienced more climate-related displacement than anywhere else, mainly around extreme events.

The aim of this report is to provide insights for policy-makers, international organizations, humanitarian groups and others who wish to reduce human suffering and achieve more just outcomes.