The first step of the GIST project was the development of a framework for analysing the governance of innovation systems, published as a journal article (Hillman et al., 2011). Parallel to that work, two primary case studies were initiated that were supposed to contribute to framework development and to the understanding of the connection between governance and innovation processes. The overall case focus of the project is innovations for sustainable transport, and more specifically low-carbon road vehicles and fuels. This case study report on biofuels was written by Karl Hillman (IMIT and University of Gävle), with support from the other researchers involved in the GIST project: Annika Rickne (University of Gothenburg and IMIT), Måns Nilsson (Stockholm Environment Institute and Royal Institute of Technology), and Thomas Magnusson (IMIT and Linköping University). Some of the data was collected at Chalmers University of Technology in 2004-2005 by Karl Hillman (then named Jonasson) in cooperation with Björn Sandén and Hanna Jönsson (now at the Västra Götaland Region).