The author aims to examine how such investments have been directed towards biodiversity action, and in this context is motivated by the observation that great expectation has been placed on private capital to provision the necessary actions with a now long-standing assumption that such actions cannot be funded by public means.

The authors first summarize the development of the climate and biodiversity funding system, and then report on its relative impact to date, before introducing and describing how contributions from social-technical transitions theory could be helpful to policy planning in this area.