In the Philippines, Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) represents the dominant response to narratives of coastal ecosystem decline. However, there are persistent challenges to implementation manifest in continued resource degradation, questioning of the exercise of stakeholder involvement and rising resource conflicts.
The evidence derives from a conservation planning process in the Babuyan Islands, Province of Cagayan. The planning process was facilitated to bring about social learning amongst stakeholders, drawing on Critical Systems Heuristics and Soft Systems Methodology. The backbone of the planning process was a series of planning workshops in Camiguin and Calayan Islands, and in Tuguegarao City,
the provincial capital, with participation of close to 100 people.
In addition, individual consultations with 34 key informants explored questions which emerged from the workshops.
See also the policy brief Philippine Integrated Coastal Management: the Need for Improved Accountability and Local Ownership