The conflict between climate change mitigation and ecosystems functions is highlighted in the implementation of two EU directives: the renewable energy directive (RES) and the water framework directive (WFD). This paper examines the Swedish implementation of the RES and WFD and possible outcomes in light of the set-up and functioning of the present concession system of hydropower in Sweden. The paper discusses the degree of policy coherence of the present and foreseeable outcomes of the directives and suggests some possible policy alternatives to increase coherence in the implementation of the twin objectives.

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