Residential energy use creates substantial carbon emissions, accounting for 22% of the overall global final energy use and 17% of emissions, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Residential energy use, and the associated CO2 emissions, could be significantly reduced through residential energy efficiency interventions (REEIs). In addition to reducing energy use and emissions, REEIs are widely recognised as improving health and well-being, as well providing by microeconomic and macroeconomic benefits.

While promising, there is no conclusive evidence on how REEIs affect energy consumption and ultimately global emissions. Synthesising the available evidence on REEIs would provide useful information to inform energy strategy and policy design, implementation and financing decisions.

This review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the evidence available on the effectiveness of energy efficiency measure installations, including those bundled with behavioural interventions. The synthesis estimates the overall impact of these interventions as well as examine possible causes of variation in impacts. The authors also attempt to assess the cost-effectiveness of REEIs.