In the case studies, stakeholders from business, government, NGOs, and others supplied some 40 % of input on risks, significantly widening the scope of risks considered by academics and experts. Overall, experts and academics focus more on economic risks and assess these with quantitative methods and models, while other stakeholders give greater consideration to political risks.

The authors conclude that, to avoid losing sight of risks that cannot be easily quantified and modelled, including some economic risks, impact assessment modelling should be complemented with qualitative research and stakeholder engagement.

Eliciting risks in a systematic way supports communication with stakeholders, enables better risk mitigation, and increases the chance of a sustainable transition.