Utilizing the Technology Innovation System (TIS) framework, the authors analyze the major factors that contributed to the development and deployment activities of low-emission, hybrid and zero emission vehicle technologies within the context of the ZEV mandate.

The ZEV mandate began as a requirement that the auto industry produce a specific volume of pure electric vehicles, but was modified over time to accommodate an evolving understanding about the status of zero-emission and low-emission technology development.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an analysis of the California ZEV mandate and its impact on innovation in vehicle technology, with a particular focus on activities within the U.S. This case study relies on academic literature, government reports and publicly available databases to detail how the ZEV mandate originated and developed over time, and how it contributed to the development and deployment of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV), and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs).

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