This book presents case studies showing that climate change is as much a problem of development as for development, with many of the risks closely linked to past, present and future development pathways. Development policies and practices can play a key role in addressing climate change, but it is critical to question to what extent such actions and interventions reproduce, rather than address, the social and political structures and development pathways driving vulnerability.

Chapter 3, “The Societal Role of Charcoal Production in Climate Change Adaptation of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya”, illustrates this point using a case study in Kenya. It demonstrates how charcoal production is a livelihood measure that, if properly managed, can actually increase the adaptive capacity of communities living in ASALs, while also addressing the challenge of energy access. It emphasizes that adaptation is about much more than a set of projects or interventions to reduce specific impacts of climate change; it is about living with change while also transforming the processes that contribute to vulnerability in the first place.