To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, wastewater and agricultural waste need to be seen as valuable resources and their safe management is crucial to long-term sustainability. The authors explore the established and emerging technologies, EU legislation and economic assessments that could help the wastewater and agricultural sectors transition towards more circular economies. The Baltic Sea Region is investigated as a case study since various ongoing international efforts to establish nutrient circularity are underway in Baltic states.

The authors find that policy and governance are central to transforming the agricultural and wastewater sectors towards increased circularity. As such, further regulations and incentive policies are necessary if circular nutrient technologies and practices are to be scaled up.