Existing governance mechanisms largely do not address these grievances, and there are several weaknesses in how the province regulates water resources. There are also conflicts of interest between different levels of government over forest resources that affect how palm-oil cultivation is governed.

The paper also notes that there is an urgent need for solid data on how water is used in palm oil plantations, and on the impacts of plantations on water supplies. Because public agencies are under-resourced they cannot adequately monitor water flows and quality. To meet this need, new and cost-effective impact-assessments are required. These assessments also need to be credible in the eyes of stakeholders.

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