This study inquires into the nature of gendered trait preference information that can be generated, if there are systematic gendered preference differences and how to understand these, and implications for breeding programmes seeking to be more gender-responsive.

Key findings include that while not all data are immediately usable by programmes, the information that is generated through mixed method, intersectional gender preference assessments usefully deepens and widens programmes’ knowledge. The study evidences differences in trait preferences between women and men. It also reveals that these differences are more complex than previously thought. In doing so, it challenges binary or homogenous models of preferences, suggesting instead that preferences are likely to be overlapping and nuanced.

The study applies a novel ‘three models of gendered trait preferences’ framework and sub-framework and finds these useful in that they challenge misconceptions and enable a needed analytical nuance to inform gender-responsive breeding programmes.

Finally, the study highlights implications and offers a call to action for gender-responsive breeding, proposing ways forward for public breeding programmes, teams and funding agencies. These include investments in interdisciplinary capabilities and considerations for navigating trade-offs while orienting to sustainable development goals.