The paper highlights that most research has focused on the impact of policies on traffic whereas much less conclusive results are found when examining the impacts of different pricing schemes on land use and on the wider urban economy e.g. does road pricing lead to decentralization and loss of jobs from existing urban centers?

However, the most important research needs concern understanding the package of measures as a whole. Although EU-funded research projects such as OPTIMA and FATIMA have sought to provide methodologies for identifying the optimum package and its financing, the emphasis has remained on the direct impact on congestion and the environment, rather than wider effects and acceptability.

The article concludes that effective urban transport policies require a consistently structured package of measures, and that the most urgent research needs surround the design of such measures to achieve their objectives while being financially sustainable and attracting public and political support.

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