The focus is primarily on collating information from investigative studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa countries that are a priority of the UK Department for International Development (DFID). Additional information from key studies is also provided for South and South East Asia DFID countries. The information has primarily been gathered from recent peer-reviewed literature, but also from reports of accredited organizations such as the WHO, UNEP, World Bank.

The report identifies a number of pathways that represent the variety in the bio-physical, socio-economic and political constructs by which pollution and environmental degradation influence human wel-lbeing and poverty. To achieve this the report is divided into sections that focus on urban areas (investigating key issues of solid waste, water sanitation and sewerage, and energy and air quality) and semi-urban/semi-rural and rural areas (investigating land degradation, with a focus on savannahs and forests as well as contaminant pathways, with a focus on mining, industrial activities and rivers, lakes and coastal waters). This information is then used to identify key research gaps for the future.